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A critical aspect of flexible choice is that alternative actions yield distinct consequences: Only when available action alternatives produce distinct outcome states does discrimination and selection between actions allow an agent to flexibly obtain the currently most desired outcome. Here, we use instrumental divergence — the degree to which alternative actions differ with respect to their outcome probability distributions — as an index of flexible instrumental control, and assess the influence of this novel decision variable on choice preference. In Experiment 1, when other decision variables, such as expected value and outcome entropy, were held constant, we found a significant preference for high instrumental divergence.
As part of the series, several musical releases through Avex Mode were made for the series opening themes , ending themes, image songs , and original soundtracks. Most songs are rearrangements of the initial opening and ending themes. The other "edits" of "Climax Jump" that were released on the single were used as background music for the series. It debuted at 5 on the Oricon weekly charts, becoming the first of AAA's singles to reach the top five of the charts. For the introduction of Climax Form in episode 28, "Climax Jump" was used as the ending theme. In the finale, the instrumental version of "Climax Jump" was used as a true ending theme, playing over the end credits, instead of over the battle.
The intentional theory of instrumental performance proposes that performance of an action is determined in part by a belief about its causal effectiveness in producing a desired outcome. In two experiments, subjects were given an opportunity to perform an action—pressing a key on acomputer keyboard—which was associated with an outcome on the computer screen according to a free-operant contingency. The subjects in one group were asked to judge the effectiveness of the action in causing the outcome, while those in a second group were asked to maximize their points score under a payoff schedule. In the first study, the effect of varying the contingency between the action and outcome was examined by keeping the probability of an outcome contiguous with an action constant and varying the probability of an outcome in the absence of an action. Performance and judgments showed a comparable sensitivity to variations of the instrumental contingency. In the second study, the delay between the action and the resultant outcome was varied. These results are in accord with the intentional theory of performance, but they present difficulties for the notion of implicit learning. Download to read the full article text.